There are many components that make up a complete solar system, but the 4 main items are:
The solar modules are physically mounted on a mount structure and the DC power they produce is run through a charge controller before it goes on to the battery bank to be stored. The two main functions of a charge controller are to prevent the battery from being overcharged and eliminate any reverse current flow from the batteries back to the solar modules at night or in reduced light. The battery bank stores the energy produced by the solar array during the day for use at anytime of day or night. Discover® batteries are available in many footprints with many storage capacities. The inverter takes the DC energy stored in the batteries and inverts it to 120 VAC to run the AC appliances.
Figure 8 - Simple Solar Installation