Lithium LiFePO<sub>4</sub> (LFP) Battery Block
Without special battery management controls, Lithium LiFePO4 (LFP) battery blocks are not usually combined in series to raise the system voltage. Lithium batteries of a specific voltage (e.g. 12V, 24V, 36V, or 48-Volts) are therefore matched to the system or application voltage. Lithium batteries of the same voltage are used in parallel to increase capacity. Lithium batteries last many times longer than lead-acid and can be discharged up to 90% ~ 100% Depth of Discharge (DoD). Lithium batteries have an average lifetime round-trip efficiency of greater than 95%. Lithium battery charge efficiency can be as much as 67% more efficient than lead-acid batteries, thus requiring less generator time or a smaller array of solar panels than lead-acid systems. Lithium batteries can be opportunity charged and need not be recharged to 100% state-of-charge (SoC). Using a correctly sized lithium battery charger with or without integrated communications, batteries can be charged from 0-100% in as little as one hour. Lithium batteries are safe: no gas, no-spill. They require no water and are maintenance-free. Heat mats can support lithium batteries for cold weather operations.